Big Data

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services – News Opener

Amazon Redshift is a fast, fully managed cloud data warehouse that makes it simple and cost-effective to analyze all your data using standard SQL and your existing business intelligence (BI) tools.

Many customers look to build their data warehouse on Amazon Redshift, and they have many requirements where they want to convert data from row level to column level and vice versa. Amazon Redshift now natively supports PIVOT and UNPIVOT SQL operators with built-in optimizations that you can use for data modeling, data analysis, and data presentation. You can apply PIVOT and UNPIVOT to tables, sub-queries, and common table expressions (CTEs). PIVOT supports the COUNT, SUM, MIN, MAX, and AVG aggregate functions.

You can use PIVOT tables as a statistics tool that summarizes and reorganizes selected columns and rows of data from a dataset. The following are a few scenarios where this can be useful:

  • Group the values by at least one column
  • Convert the unique values of a selected column into new column names
  • Use in combination with aggregate functions to derive complex reports
  • Filter specific values in rows and convert them into columns or vice versa
  • Use these operators to generate a multidimensional reporting

In this post, we discuss the benefits of PIVOT and UNPIVOT, and how you can use them to simplify your analytics in Amazon Redshift.

PIVOT overview

The following code illustrates the PIVOT syntax:

SELECT … 
FROM  
    (<get_source_data>)   
    AS <alias_source_query>  
PIVOT  
(  
    <agg_func>(<agg_col>)  
FOR   
[<pivot_col>]   
    IN ( [pivot_value_first], [pivot_value_second],  
    ... [pivot_value_last])  
) AS <alias_pivot>
<optional ORDER BY clause>;

The syntax contains the following parameters:

  • <get_source_data> – The SELECT query that gets the data from the source table
  • <alias_source_query> – The alias for the source query that gets the data
  • <agg_func> – The aggregate function to apply
  • <agg_col> – The column to aggregate
  • <pivot_col> – The column whose value is pivoted
  • <pivot_value_n> – A list of pivot column values separated by commas
  • <alias_pivot> – The alias for the pivot table
  • <optional ORDER BY clause> – An optional parameter to apply an ORDER BY clause on the result set

The following diagram illustrates how PIVOT works.

PIVOT instead of CASE statements

Let’s look at an example of analyzing data from a different perspective than how it’s stored in the table. In the following example, book sales data is stored by year for each book. We want to look at the book_sales dataset by year and analyze if there were any books sold or not, and if sold, how many books were sold for each title. The following screenshot shows our query.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

The following screenshot shows our output.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

Previously, you had to derive your desired results set using a CASE statement. This requires you to add an individual CASE statement with the column name for each title, as shown in the following code:

SELECT year,
MAX (CASE WHEN bookname="LOTR" THEN sales ELSE NULL END) LOTR,
MAX (CASE WHEN bookname="GOT" THEN sales ELSE NULL END) GOT,
MAX (CASE WHEN bookname="Harry Potter" THEN sales else NULL
END) "Harry Potter",
MAX (CASE WHEN bookname="Sherlock" THEN sales ELSE NULL END)
sherlock
FROM book_sales GROUP BY year order by year;

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

With the out-of-the-box PIVOT operator, you can use a simpler SQL statement to achieve the same results:

SELECT *
FROM
(
  SELECT bookname, year, sales
  FROM book_sales
) AS d
PIVOT
(
  MAX(sales)
  FOR bookname IN ('LOTR', 'GOT', 'Harry Potter', 'Sherlock')
) AS piv
order by year;

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

UNPIVOT overview

The following code illustrates the UNPIVOT syntax:

SELECT ...
FROM  
    (<get_source_data>)   
    AS <alias_source_query> 
UNPIVOT <optional INCLUDE NULLS>
(  
    <value_col>
FOR   
<name_col>  
    IN (column_name_1, column_name_2 ..... column_name_n)  
) AS <alias_unpivot>
<optional ORDER BY clause>; 

The code uses the following parameters:

  • <get_source_data> – The SELECT query that gets the data from the source table.
  • <alias_source_query> – The alias for the source query that gets the data.
  • <optional INCLUDE NULLS> – An optional parameter to include NULL values in the result set. By default, NULLs in input columns aren’t inserted as result rows.
  • <value_col> – The name assigned to the generated column that contains the row values from the column list.
  • <name_col> – The name assigned to the generated column that contains the column names from the column list.
  • <column_name_n> – The column names from the source table or subquery to populate value_col and name_col.
  • <alias_unpivot> – The alias for the unpivot table.
  • <optional ORDER BY clause> – An optional parameter to apply an ORDER BY clause on the result set.

The following diagram illustrates how UNPIVOT works.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

UNPIVOT instead of UNION ALL queries

Let’s look at the following example query with book_sales_pivot.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

We get the following output.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

Previously, you had to derive this result set using UNION ALL, which resulted in a long and complex query form, as shown in the following code:

select * from
(SELECT year, 'lotr' AS book, LOTR AS sales FROM (SELECT * FROM book_sales_pivot)
UNION ALL
SELECT year, 'got' AS book, GOT AS sales FROM (SELECT * FROM book_sales_pivot)
UNION ALL
SELECT year, 'harry potter' AS book, "Harry Potter" AS sales FROM (SELECT * FROM book_sales_pivot)
UNION ALL
SELECT year, 'sherlock' AS book, "Sherlock" AS sales FROM (SELECT * FROM book_sales_pivot)
)
order by year;

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener
With UNPIVOT, you can use the following simplified query:

select * from book_sales_pivot UNPIVOT INCLUDE NULLS
(sales for book in ("LOTR", "GOT", "Harry Potter", "Sherlock"))
order by year;

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

UNPIVOT is straightforward compared to UNION ALL. You can further clean this output by excluding NULL values from the result set. For example, you can exclude book titles from the result set if there were no sales in a year:

select * from book_PIVOT UNPIVOT
(sales for book in ("LOTR", "GOT", "Harry Potter", "Sherlock"))
order by year;

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

By default, NULL values in the input column are skipped and don’t yield a result row.

Now that we understand the basic interface and usability, let’s dive into a few complex use cases.

Dynamic PIVOT tables using stored procedures

The query of PIVOT is static, meaning that you have to enter a list of PIVOT column names manually. In some scenarios, you may not want to manually use your PIVOT values because your data keeps changing, and it gets difficult to maintain the list of values and update the PIVOT query manually.

To handle these scenarios, you can take advantage of the dynamic PIVOT stored procedure:

/*
        non_pivot_cols : Text list of columns to be added to the SELECT clause
        table_name     : Schema qualified name of table to be queried
        agg_func       : Name of the aggregate function to apply
        agg_col        : Name of the column to be aggregated
        pivot_col      : Name of the column whose value will be pivoted
        result_set     : Name of cursor used for output      
 */      

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE public.sp_dynamicPIVOT
(
non_pivot_cols IN VARCHAR(MAX),
table_name IN VARCHAR(MAX),
agg_func IN VARCHAR(32),
agg_col IN VARCHAR(MAX),
pivot_col IN VARCHAR(100),
result_set INOUT REFCURSOR )
AS $$
DECLARE
sql        VARCHAR(MAX) := '';
result_t   VARCHAR(MAX) := '';
PIVOT_sql  VARCHAR(MAX);
cnt INTEGER := 1;
no_of_parts INTEGER := 0;
item_for_col character varying := '';
item_pivot_cols character varying := '';
BEGIN

sql := 'SELECT  listagg (distinct ' || pivot_col || ', '','') within group (order by ' || pivot_col || ')  from ' || table_name || ';';

EXECUTE sql ||' ;' INTO result_t;


no_of_parts := (select REGEXP_COUNT ( result_t , ','  ));


<<simple_loop_exit_continue>>
  LOOP
    item_for_col := item_for_col + '''' + (select split_part("result_t",',',cnt)) +''''; 
    item_pivot_cols := item_pivot_cols + '"' + (select split_part("result_t",',',cnt)) +'"'; 
    cnt = cnt + 1;
    IF (cnt < no_of_parts + 2) THEN
        item_for_col := item_for_col + ',';
        item_pivot_cols := item_pivot_cols + ',';
    END IF;
    EXIT simple_loop_exit_continue WHEN (cnt >= no_of_parts + 2);
  END LOOP;


PIVOT_sql := 'SELECT ' || non_PIVOT_cols || ',' || item_pivot_cols || ' from ( select * from ' || table_name || ' ) as src_data PIVOT ( ' || agg_func || '(' || agg_col || ') FOR ' || pivot_col || ' IN (' || item_for_col || ' )) as PIV order by ' || non_PIVOT_cols || ';';


-- Open the cursor and execute the SQL
OPEN result_set FOR EXECUTE PIVOT_sql;

END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


Example:
BEGIN;
CALL public.sp_dynamicPIVOT ('year','public.book_sales','MAX','sales','bookname', 'PIVOT_result');
FETCH ALL FROM PIVOT_result; CLOSE PIVOT_result;
END;

PIVOT example using CTEs

You can use PIVOT as part of a CTE (Common Table Expression). See the following example code:

with dataset1 as
(Select bookname,sales from public.book_sales)
select * from dataset1 PIVOT (
 sum(sales)
 FOR bookname IN ('LOTR', 'GOT', 'Harry Potter', 'Sherlock')
);

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

Multiple aggregations for PIVOT

The following code illustrates multiple aggregations for PIVOT:

WITH dataset1 AS
(
 SELECT 1 AS "rownum",
 bookname,
 sales
 FROM PUBLIC.book_sales)
SELECT *
FROM (
 SELECT rownum,"LOTR" as avg_sales_lotr,"GOT" as avg_sales_got,"Harry Potter" as avg_sales_harrypotter,"Sherlock" as avg_sales_sherlock
 FROM dataset1 PIVOT (avg(sales) FOR bookname IN ('LOTR','GOT','Harry Potter','Sherlock')) AS avg_sales) a
JOIN
 (
 SELECT rownum, "LOTR" as sum_sales_lotr,"GOT" as sum_sales_got,"Harry Potter" as sum_sales_harrypotter,"Sherlock" as sum_sales_sherlock
 FROM dataset1 PIVOT (sum(sales) FOR bookname IN ('LOTR',
 'GOT', 'Harry Potter', 'Sherlock')) AS sum_sales) b
using (rownum);

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener

Summary

Although PIVOT and UNPIVOT aren’t entirely new paradigms of SQL language, the new native support for these operators in Amazon Redshift can help you achieve many robust use cases without the hassle of using alternate operators. In this post, we explored a few ways in which the new operators may come in handy.

Adapt PIVOT and UNPIVOT into your workstreams now and work with us as we evolve the feature, incorporating more complex option sets. Please feel free to reach out to us if you need further help to achieve your custom use cases.


About the authors

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News Opener Ashish Agrawal is currently Sr. Technical Product Manager with Amazon Redshift building cloud-based data warehouse and analytics cloud service. Ashish has over 24 years of experience in IT. Ashish has expertise in data warehouse, data lake, Platform as a Service. Ashish is speaker at worldwide technical conferences.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News OpenerSai Teja Boddapati is a Database Engineer based out of Seattle. He works on solving complex database problems to contribute to building the most user friendly data warehouse available. In his spare time, he loves travelling, playing games and watching movies & documentaries.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News OpenerManeesh Sharma is a Senior Database Engineer at AWS with more than a decade of experience designing and implementing large-scale data warehouse and analytics solutions. He collaborates with various Amazon Redshift Partners and customers to drive better integration.

Simplify analytics on Amazon Redshift using PIVOT and UNPIVOT | Amazon Web Services - News OpenerEesha Kumar is an Analytics Solutions Architect with AWS. He works with customers to realize business value of data by helping them building solutions leveraging AWS platform and tools.

 Source link

Back to top button